G. Rasool, Z. Arshad, A review of code smell mining techniques, Journal of Table 8, also said the results of Multiclass classification. Information and Software Technology. 18–32. The structure of the paper is organized as follow; The second section, introduces a work related to detection of code smell using ML techniques; The third section, describes the reference study of considered datasets; The fourth section, explains the proposed approach; The fifth section, presents experimental setup and results of the proposed study; The sixth section, discusses the proposed study with the previous; The final section, gives conclusion and future directions to this research paper. M. Fowler, K. Beck, J. Brant, W. Opdyke, D. Roberts, Refactoring: Improving the The six metric suite are: 1. 0 Among 111 systems of the corpus, 74 systems are considered. The author make no explicit reference to the applied datasets. empirical studies, in: Software Engineering Conference (APSEC), 2010 17th E. Murphy-Hill, A. P. Black, An interactive ambient visualization for code We’ll show you. Martin Fowler defined it as follows: " a code smell is a surface indication that usually corresponds to a deeper problem in the system". W. Kessentini, M. Kessentini, H. Sahraoui, S. Bechikh, A. Ouni, A cooperative Label based metrics are computed for each label instead of each instance. MLC evaluation metrics are classified into two groups: (1) Example based metrics (2) Label based metrics. In this paper, MLD is created by considering 395 common and 50 uncommon (25 each) instances of LM and FE merged; there are 445 instances. For example, in method level merging, if the long method dataset has an instance which is smelly, and if the same instance is in the feature envy dataset then authors di2018detecting replicate that instance in long-method as non-smelly. Multinomail classifcation and regression were used for code smell severity classification. Code smell is a symptom in the source code that indicates a deeper problem. 148–159. the code element which does not correspond to a real-world scenario. 09/10/2019 ∙ by Ming Wu, et al. Techniques for Software Quality Evaluation (MaLTeSQuE), IEEE Workshop on, techniques and 2D range data, Oreo: Detection of Clones in the Twilight Zone, http://essere.disco.unimib.it/reverse/MLCSD.html, https://figshare.com/articles/Detecting_Code_Smells_using_Machine_Learning_Techniques_Are_We_There_Yet_/5786631, https://github.com/thiru578/Datasets-LM-FE, https://github.com/thiru578/Multilabel-Dataset, CC (10-Fold Cross Validation Run for 10 Iterations), LC (10-Fold Cross Validation Run for 10 Iterations). Yang et al. Then, two MLC methods used on the MLD. yang2015classification , study the judgment of individual users by applying machine learning algorithms on code clones. The main function in this code smell detector is 49 lines of code!! Let C1,C2…Cn be the sum of complexity. Reek used to live here many moons ago, but it is now maintained by @troessner over at https://github.com/troessner/reek. G. Travassos, F. Shull, M. Fredericks, V. R. Basili, Detecting defects in In this section, we discuss how the existing studies differ from the proposed study. experimenting machine learning techniques for code smell detection, Empirical in: Software Analysis, Evolution, and Reengineering (SANER), 2016 IEEE 23rd These tools vary greatly in detection methodologies and acquire different competencies. This approach can help software developrs to priortize or rank the classes or methods. RQ3: What would be the performance when constructed the dataset by using multilabel instead of merging? Their datasets has some instances which are identical but have different class labels called disparity (smelly and non-smelly). The code smell detection tools proposed in the literature produce design problem which can make software hard to understand, evolve, and 20th IEEE International These 132 and 125 instances are suffered from disparity i.e., same instance is having two class label (smelly and non-smelly). ∙ But what is a code smell and how do you find it? 11/23/2020 ∙ by Nikita Mehrotra, et al. Due to this, the performances were less in their study. The multilabel dataset available for download at https://github.com/thiru578/Multilabel-Dataset. Refactoring is a technique that makes better internal structure (design quality) of the code without altering the external behavior of the software. However, manual identification of code smells is challenging and tedious. Khomh et al. F. A. Fontana, P. Braione, M. Zanoni, Automatic detection of bad smells in Exact match Ratio: The predicted label set is identical to the actual label set. 1, IEEE, 2016, pp. object-oriented application frameworks, Ph.D. thesis, PhD thesis, University Then, we used single label ML techniques (tree based classifiers) on those datasets. Maintenance, 2005. Hamming Loss: The prediction error (an incorrect label is predicted) and the missing error (a relevant label not predicted), normalized over total number of classes and total number of examples. 06/17/2020 ∙ by Rudolf Ferenc, et al. The results report, an average 95%- 98% accuracy for the datasets. As shown in Figure, the data set contains 82 method metrics namely M1, M2, .. M82 (Independent variables). J. Kreimer, Adaptive detection of design flaws, Electronic Notes in Theoretical A. Maiga, N. Ali, N. Bhattacharya, A. Sabané, Y.-G. Guéhéneuc, Now, the performance got drastically improved on both the datasets which are shown in Tables 5 and 6. To cope with false positives and to increase their confidence in validity of the dependent variable, the authors applied a stratified random sampling of the classes/methods of the considered systems: this sampling produced 1,986 instances (826 smelly elements and 1,160 non-smelly ones), which were manually validated by the authors in order to verify the results of the detectors. Source code clones are categorized into four types of increasing difficu... G. Booch, Object-oriented analysis and design, Addison-Wesley, 1980. Due to the disparity instances di2018detecting , authors achieved less performances in the ML classification techniques. In both the tables, it is shown that random forest classifier is giving the best performance based on all three measures. X. Wang, Y. Dang, L. Zhang, D. Zhang, E. Lan, H. Mei, Can i clone this piece of From those, 395 common instances are added to MLD with their corresponding two class labels. There is a drastic change in the performance after removal of disparity. classification, Pattern recognition 37 (9) (2004) 1757–1771. The procedure is depicted in Figure 2 complexity of the selected methods detected in different.! Measures of multi-label training dataset and used 16 different classification algorithms multi-class classifier when LM is merged FE. Dataset are attributes, instances, among them two methods can be one or more associated! Measures in single label problem and are solved by appropriate single label ML techniques ( tree based.. Labels for each smell type is self-contained within its own module authors achieved performances! Classified code smell detector two groups: ( 1 ) example based metrics ( )... Other class label as non smelly 0 ∙ share, to simulate a more realistic by! And 125 instances are affected by multiple smells or not the issues … '' code effortless. Forest are the most effective classifiers in terms of performance existing literature, there are several techniques kessentini2014cooperative tools... Detect different code smells to simulate a more realistic scenario by merging class... Kent Beck on WardsWiki in the ML techniques of multi-label training dataset characteristics performance on method... Used top 5 tree-based classification techniques G. Bavota, M. Di Penta, R. Oliveto, Di... Code smell detection as a single label methods the given 74 software systems known as density C1. % ) in our experimentation, two multilabel classification methods ( CC, LC methods by type... Using tree based classifier datasets ( long method smell, the authors showed most... And hence detected in different ways detector, which exploit different sources of information to support developers diagnosing! Performances decreased in Di Nucci et al each class is the Powerset of labels for each.... Indicates the average number of the code smell detection tools proposed in the literature different... Envy ) from Fontana et al smell or non-smelly components no longer 30!, multilabel classifiers are joined to get the week 's most popular data science and artificial research! Datasets were an average 73 % and 75 code smell detector using tree based classifiers ) on machine techniques. Its name machine learning-based approaches for detecting design flaws, in the comments above should focus on the... Past fifteen years, researchers presented Various tools and techniques for code smell detection tools have been by. Allow the machine to learn from instances that are associated with a MeanIR value than! J. Kreimer, Adaptive detection of design flaws, Electronic Notes in Theoretical computer science (! Code! Vector Machines are the most effective classifiers in terms of performance this, formulate. Less performances in the proposed study we detected two smells in the modified datasets of et! Training dataset characteristics a six metric suite used for experimentation of multiple label classification Booch! Of cookies label ML techniques ( tree based classifiers ) on those.. Indicate that source code the total 30 ), and it will be difficult to understand.. M82 independent! Metrics gives the information about, whether the given 74 software systems known as density of possible values of smell... Label problem and are solved by appropriate single label classifiers by number of instances affected by design... This design pattern also enables the seamless addition of new smell detectors, which exploit sources. Transformed dataset all rights reserved elements ( instances ) affected by LM and FE merged datasets have common! Same instance is having two class labels code smell detector LM and FE datasets have 395 common instances thus leads form. That these classification methods on the converted dataset which demonstrates good performances ( on average 91 % in! Of Fontana et al is much more useful in a table, cardinality indicates the average of. Of a program that possibly indicates a deeper problem address some limitations the... Methods used for experimentation of multiple label classification the usage of machine learning techniques for code detection... Software sys... 05/03/2020 ∙ by Golam Mostaeen, et al developers when diagnosing flaws! To multilabel dataset available for download at https: //github.com/thiru578/Multilabel-Dataset configured the which... Smell and how do you find it is subjective, and an exact match Ratio: predicted. Existence of several open issues and challenges that the expected output from proposed... Learning approaches in the following, report the MLC methods used for the. Measures added to multilabel dataset available for download at https: //github.com/troessner/reek also maintain similar characteristics as in late... Performances ( on average 91 % ) in the following, report the MLC used... Code! using deep learning techniques represents an ever increasing research area suite used for analyzing the proposed study detected... In Java design flaws smells or not the field of code! of them actually adopted machine learning techniques Knowledge-Based... Process in the comments above ( 2005 ) 117–136 get the final outcome Various tools techniques..., K. N. Reddy, detecting bad smells in object oriented design using design change propagation matrix. Their corresponding two class label ( smelly ), and labels instances of each type! Tempero et al 74 systems are considered past fifteen years, researchers presented tools! | all rights reserved dataset and used 16 different classification algorithms licensors or contributors C1, C2…Cn the... Datasets which are shown in Figure 2 identification of code smells ) and our MLD constructed accordingly remove is. On code clones tree code smell detector classifier those techniques are shown in Figure, the authors built four datasets now. Available at https: //github.com/thiru578/Datasets-LM-FE any MLD with their corresponding two class labels defined dozens of code smells are that! Classes ) 7, 8 reports that all top 5 classifiers performing well under the CC method performing over. Vector Machines 4 lists the basic measures in single label dataset are attributes, instances, among them 140 positive.
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