viet cong primary sources

In order to combat better-supplied American and South Vietnamese forces during the Vietnam War, Communist guerrilla troops known as Viet Cong dug tens of … The 1972 Easter Offensive was a direct North Vietnamese attack across the DMZ between North and South. Note the curated subject guides on many topics for help digging into the wealth of … Tales of sensational murder and mayhem soon crowded the headlines. Primary Resources - free worksheets, lesson plans and teaching ideas for primary and elementary teachers. For the most part, those who didn't like what was going on kept their thoughts to themselves. [48] Squads were assigned monthly assassination quotas. They were allied with North Vietnam and the troops of Ho Chi Minh, who sought to conquer the south and create a unified, communist state of Vietnam. Its military force, the Liberation Army of South Vietnam (LASV), fought against the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War, eventually emerging on the winning side. Two thirds of the peasants owned no land at all and were therefore forced to work for the rich landlords. It's a real feeling of power. Carter recalled that some GIs were shouting and yelling during the massacre: "The boys enjoyed it. Ironically, most of the explosives used for these mines came from unexploded bombs dropped by the United States. The aim of this exercise was to deny food to the NLF. In Vietnam a Communist government has set out deliberately to conquer a sovereign people in a neighbouring state. For the next thousand years Vietnam struggled to gain its independence from its much larger neighbour. My wrists and arms were tied behind my back. National Archives Identifier: 542328. He would tell them nothing except his name, rank, serial number, date of birth. He was still lying on his stomach in the gully when he felt the bayonets in his back. Secondary . When searching catalogs and databases for primary source materials, try using keywords and subject headings similar to the ones below, adding terms denoting primary sources.-sources . A map of North and South Vietnam during the Vietnam War showing major air bases and the communists' supply routes, including the Ho Chi Minh Trail. [57] Viet Cong entered the cities concealed among civilians returning home for Tết. Vietnam War theatre. I didn't know whether they were true because I wasn't there. Major reversals in 1966 and 1967, as well as the growing American presence in Vietnam, inspired Hanoi to consult its allies and reassess strategy in April 1967. They also waged a mass murder campaign against civilian hamlets and refugee camps; in the peak war years, nearly a third of all civilian deaths were the result of Viet Cong atrocities. Later communist offensives were conducted predominantly by the North Vietnamese. Members generally referred to the Viet Cong as "the Front" (Mặt trận). The term Việt Cộng appeared in Saigon newspapers beginning in 1956. 'Agent Orange', the chemical used in this defoliation programme not only destroyed trees but caused chromosomal damage in people. There was never any reasonable establishment of the fact that any of those individuals was, in fact, cooperating with the Vietcong, but they all died and the majority were either tortured to death or things like thrown from helicopters. It displays that essentially nothing is off-limits when it comes to propaganda. Nguyen Tuong Lai was a Viet Cong guerrilla. After seeing their comrades killed by booby traps, there was a temptation for the patrol to take it out on the next village they arrived at. Many Liberation Army of South Vietnam units operated at night,[46] and employed terror as a standard tactic. Dropping to the ground, I watched this kid firing away for 10 seconds, till he disappeared with his buddies into the rice. North Vietnam established the National Liberation Front on December 20, 1960, to foment insurgency in the South. An oil pipeline was built from North Vietnam to Viet Cong headquarters in Lộc Ninh, about 75 miles northwest of Saigon. 10 Questions | By Dbspence | Last updated: Feb 22, ... A 2007 journal article about the Viet Cong with a formal writing style, bibliography at the end, and lots of analysis and interpretation. These included:" (1) Not to do what is likely to damage the land and crops or spoil the houses and belongings of the people; (2) Not to insist on buying or borrowing what the people are not willing to sell or lend; (3) Never to break our word; (4) Not to do or speak what is likely to make people believe that we hold them in contempt; (5) To help them in their daily work (harvesting, fetching firewood, carrying water, sewing, etc.).". As a result of an agreement with the Cambodian government made in 1966, weapons for the Viet Cong were shipped to the Cambodian port of Sihanoukville and then trucked to Viet Cong bases near the border along the "Sihanouk Trail", which replaced the Ho Chi Minh Trail. The earliest citation for Viet Cong in English is from 1957. CIA. Even if the troops found the entrance to the tunnels, they could not go into the tunnels as they were often too small for the much larger American soldiers. [63], The offensive was undertaken in the hope of triggering a general uprising, but urban Vietnamese did not respond as the Viet Cong anticipated. Primary. "[59] The offensive included a commando raid on the U.S. Embassy in Saigon and a massacre at Huế of about 3,500 residents. Anything. In the words of Mao Zedong: "The enemy advances, we retreat; the enemy camps, we harass; the enemy tires, we attack; the enemy retreats, we pursue.". The most feared mine was the 'Bouncing Betty'. In 1965, General William Westmoreland developed the aggressive strategy of 'search and destroy'. [35] The Viet Cong grew rapidly; an estimated 300,000 members were enrolled in "liberation associations" (affiliated groups) by early 1962. [26], Two regional command centers were merged to create the Central Office for South Vietnam (Trung ương Cục miền Nam), a unified communist party headquarters for the South. As one marine captain explained: "You never knew who was the enemy and who was the friend. I thought they were torturing another prisoner. If US patrols arrived in the village unexpectedly, the NLF would hide in these underground caverns. A. The peasants were angry at having to travel longer distances to reach their rice fields. They tied my nipples to an electric wire and they gave me electric shocks, knocking me to the floor every time that they did so. Many of the Viet Cong's core members were volunteer "regroupees", southern Viet Minh who had resettled in the North after the Geneva Accord (1954). In economic terms, the bombing hurt the economy of the United States more than North Vietnam. [25] The first arms delivery via the trail, a few dozen rifles, was completed in August 1959. This powerful platform greatly enhances the research experience for students and researchers by broadening their discovery of primary source documents through the use of multiple search options and research tools. This primary source comes from the Records of U.S. Air Force Commands, Activities, and Organizations. By the terms of the Geneva Accord (1954), which ended the Indochina War, France and the Viet Minh agreed to a truce and to a separation of forces. [47] Rice procured at gunpoint sustained the Viet Cong. Sometimes a string of ears, decorates the wall of a government military installation. He had not even noticed how much he was bleeding or the pieces of bone that had been pushed through his skin and were sticking out of his leg like huge toothpicks... North Vietnamese officers interrogated him. Some of Calley's men thought it was breakfast time as they walked in; a few families were gathered in front of their homes cooking rice over a small fire. The Viet Minh had become the government of Democratic Republic of Vietnam since the Vietnamese 1946 general election, and military forces of the communists regrouped there. [6] The Saigon-Cholon Peace Committee, the first Viet Cong front, was founded in 1954 to provide leadership for this group. President Eisenhower's letter to South Vietnamese leader Ngo Dinh Diem promising aid against the North, October 1954. [85], Anti-communists countered that the Viet Cong was merely a front for Hanoi. The moment-to-moment, step-by-step decision-making preys on your mind. The Viet Cong used any available tactic to demoralize and intimidate the population, including the assassination of South Vietnamese commanders. It was like a stew, full of meat and flesh and red tissue and white bone. Type in your name to start the game. Feb 27, 2017 - Explore Ari L.'s board "Vietnam War Primary Sources" on Pinterest. At the end of the day, the villagers would be turned loose. [71] In May 1968, Trường Chinh urged "protracted war" in a speech that was published prominently in the official media, so the fortunes of his "North first" fraction may have revived at this time. Modeling Activity: Since this lesson asks students to look closely at primary sources to make observations and inferences about the Vietnam War, … B. Several months ago in Detroit we had an investigation at which over 150 honorably discharged, and many very highly decorated, veterans testified to war crimes committed in South-East Asia. Because it was their backyard. (6) In spare time, to tell amusing, simple, and short stories useful to the Resistance, but not to betray secrets. Although the leader of the NLF, Hua Tho, was a non-Marxist, Saigon lawyer, large numbers of the movement were supporters of communism. The Vietnam War Primary Sources . A few hollered out, "No VC, No VC,"... Women were huddled against children, vainly trying to save them. B. A photo of a Viet Cong soldier crouching in a bunker with an SKS rifle, 1968. In March, Trà was recalled to Hanoi for a series of meetings to hammer out a plan for an enormous offensive against Saigon. [37] U.S. President John F. Kennedy decided in November 1961 to substantially increase American military aid to South Vietnam. After the debacle of the broad Tet Offensive, the Viet Cong had returned to guerrilla tactics and tended to avoid direct encounters with U.S. forces. [nb 2] In 1969, the Viet Cong created the "Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam" (Chính Phủ Cách Mạng Lâm Thời Cộng Hòa Miền Nam Việt Nam, abbreviated PRG. Approved For Release 2006/05/24: CIA-RDP78T02095R000800070039-3 Approved For Release 2006/05/24: CIA … Anyone who says they can and not feel guilty about it is lying. This was a secondary source but I cited it as a primary source because the only thing I used from the website was the primary source picture. [73] COSVN rejected this view as "lacking resolution and absolute determination. [23] In June 1958, the Viet Cong created a command structure for the eastern Mekong Delta. Viet Cong guerrillas in small boats patrol the Saigon River in South Vietnam ... United Press International photo from an official communist source. Example: Vietnam War, 1961-1975--Sources-personal narratives. Gale Primary Sources is a universal research experience that combines Gale's acclaimed digital archives in a single cross-search interface. [78], In response to the anti-war movement, the U.S. Congress passed the Case–Church Amendment to prohibit further U.S. military intervention in Vietnam in June 1973 and reduced aid to South Vietnam in August 1974. A normal person can handle society. The term Việt cộng appeared in Saigon newspapers beginning in 1956. [29] The group's formation was announced by Radio Hanoi and its ten-point manifesto called for, "overthrow the disguised colonial regime of the imperialists and the dictatorial administration, and to form a national and democratic coalition administration. I love it. [76] Although 1970 was a much better year for the Viet Cong than 1969,[76] it would never again be more than an adjunct to the PAVN. [36] The Viet Cong won its first military victory against South Vietnamese forces at Ấp Bắc in January 1963. ", The war was mostly a matter of enduring weeks of expectant waiting and, at random intervals, of conducting vicious manhunts through jungles and swamps where snipers harassed us constantly and booby traps cut us down one by one... At times, the comradeship that was the war's only redeeeming quality caused some of the worst crimes - acts of retribution for friends who had been killed. A Viet Cong is a man, woman, or child a tough fighter, with words or weapons, for what he is taught to call the "liberation" of South Vietnam-the Republic of Vietnam. This became known as Guerrilla Warfare. He does not seek to kill his enemy at a blow, but to bleed him and feed on him, to plague and bedevil him... All this requires time. When someone laughs and jokes about what they're doing, they have to be enjoying it." In 1962, President John F. Kennedy approved Operation Ranch Hand. (7) Whenever possible to buy commodities for those who live far from the market. The NLF also employed booby traps against US and South Vietnamese troops. Some men could not withstand the stress of guerrilla-fighting: the hair-. The country doesn't know it yet but it has created a monster, a monster in the form of millions of men who have been taught to deal and trade in violence. French Colonialism & Vietnam's Desire for Independence. [58] In January and February 1968, some 80,000 Viet Cong struck more than 100 towns with orders to "crack the sky" and "shake the Earth. A photo of a Viet Cong soldier crouching in a bunker with an SKS rifle, 1968. The killings began without warning... Stanley saw "some old women and some little children - fifteen or twenty of them - in a group around a temple where some incense was burning. Chemicals were also sprayed on crops. [18] Nguyễn Hữu Xuyên was assigned military command in the South,[19] replacing Lê Duẩn, who was appointed North Vietnam's acting party boss. Young said, to do that, so he stayed silent and let the pain shine. To increase its advantage, the NLF relied heavily on night attacks. Viet Cong also applies to the military and civilian components of the "Front" (the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam. Troops in the War. When there was no U.S. response to a successful communist attack on Phước Bình in January 1975, South Vietnamese morale collapsed. The Vietnam War: Tet Offensive. The evidence shows that the hard core of the Communist forces attacking South Vietnam were trained in the North and ordered into the South by Hanoi. As their strength grew and the enemy retreated, they began to take the smaller towns. About 90,000 Viet Minh were evacuated to the North while 5,000 to 10,000 cadre remained in the South, most of them with orders to refocus on political activity and agitation. COSVN retreated to Mimot in Cambodia. [57] General William Westmoreland, the U.S. commander, received reports of heavy troop movements and understood that an offensive was being planned, but his attention was focused on Khe Sanh, a remote U.S. base near the DMZ. Primary Source Personal Experience Sources United States Troops Briefing Video. The earliest citation for "Vietcong" in English is from 1957. In November, Hồ traveled to Moscow with Lê Duẩn and gained approval for a more militant line. After subduing the Bình Xuyên organized crime gang in the Battle for Saigon in 1955, and the Hòa Hảo and other militant religious sects in early 1956, Diệm turned his attention to the Viet Cong. But a lot of its fire came back right at us. I lived in abject misery for the rest of the time I was a prisoner in Vietnam. ", To defeat the more powerful enemy, the guerrilla needs to dictate the terms of warfare. The Bell UH-1 Iroquois nicknamed "Huey" was used extensively in counter-guerilla operations both as a troop carrier and a gunship. Disappointed with the results of the 1964 U.S. presidential election, the Kremlin did not try to influence the election of 1968. At this point, there were about 500,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam,[44] as well as 900,000 allied forces. The next major battle, at Buôn Ma Thuột in March, was a communist walkover. EAS1533935 (NS). Notes - Title from news agency caption. I'll be pleased when its done. Some came to the conclusion that violence was the only way to persuade Diem to agree to the terms of the 1954 Geneva Conference. During the Indochina War the Vietminh had taken the land from the large landowners in the territory they controlled and given it to the peasants. Osborne, Milton. It happened slowly and gradually so no one noticed when it happened. The strategy and tactics of the National Liberation Front were very much based on those used by Mao Zedong in China. Charlie Company had suffered 28 casualties, including five dead. [70], The success of the 1973–74 dry season offensive convinced Hanoi to accelerate its timetable. Escalation of the War & the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. . Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai negotiated the terms of the ceasefire with France and then imposed them on the Viet Minh. [69] The breakup of larger Viet Cong units increased the effectiveness of the CIA's Phoenix Program (1967–72), which targeted individual leaders, as well as the Chiêu Hồi Program, which encouraged defections. To give feedback, contact us at The original caption for this photograph reads: Napalm bombs explode on Viet Cong structures south of Saigon in the Republic of Vietnam. Soldiers to dislike the Vietnam and to have motivation to win the war. This would have been a good moment to ask myself if they were wrong, and if we had a good enough reason to be in their backyard to be fired at. Primary Sources; Vietnam is a small country to the south of China ('Vietnamese' means "non-Chinese people of the south"). If he's unlucky, he will be turned into a blind, deaf, emasculated, legless shell.". . They make clear that U.S. military intelligence units in Vietnam, the CIA station in Saigon, and the NSA acquired and disseminated significant information indicating attacks were planned. [14] He argued adamantly that war with the United States was necessary to achieve unification. Indochina, France, and the Viet Minh War, 1945-1954: Records of the U.S. State Department, Part 1: 1945-1949 Archives Unbound "Comprising records of the State Department’s Central Classified Files, this collection contains records relating to the internal affairs of Indochina, during the period 1945-49. I found I was not as strong as I thought I was. On July 8, the Viet Cong killed two U.S. military advisors at Biên Hòa, the first American dead of the Vietnam War. I was very impressed, not only by their tactics but by their performance. [9][nb 1] Many writers shorten this to National Liberation Front (NLF). According to Mao Zedong, the peasants were the sea in which the guerrillas needed to swim: "without the constant and active support of the peasants... failure is inevitable. [64] "We did not base ourselves on scientific calculation or a careful weighing of all factors, but...on an illusion based on our subjective desires", Trà concluded. The NLF was merged with the Vietnamese Fatherland Front in February 1977. In some cases, the peasants also agreed to take up arms with the NLF and help 'liberate' other villages. Hanoi gave the regroupees military training and sent them back to the South along the Ho Chi Minh trail in the early 1960s. These took the form of sharpened bamboo staves and fragmentation mines. It was conical shaped, three prongs jutting out of the soil. Subjects: Primary Sources Tags: history , primary sources , war Trible Library provides links to other websites to aid in research and is not responsible for the content or privacy policy of those sites. [68], Aside from some districts in the Mekong Delta, the Viet Cong failed to create a governing apparatus in South Vietnam following Tet, according to an assessment of captured documents by the U.S. They all looked alike. [6] In October 1957, a series of bombs exploded in Saigon and left 13 Americans wounded. O'Connell, Kim A. [12] The success of this campaign inspired U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower to dub Diệm the "miracle man" when he visited the U.S. in May 1957. (COSVN was moved back to South Vietnam following the Easter Offensive.) (2) Not to insist on buying or borrowing what the people are not willing to sell or lend. I pitied them, knowing that out of every ten, one would die, two would be maimed for life, another two would be less seriously wounded and sent out to fight again, and all the rest would be wounded in other, more hidden ways. I felt sorry for those children (soldiers arriving in Vietnam for the first time) knowing that they would all grow old in the land of endless dying. [60] House-to-house fighting between Viet Cong and South Vietnamese Rangers left much of Cholon, a section of Saigon, in ruins. [nb 5] Despite this, 1960 was a year of unrest in South Vietnam, with pro-democracy demonstrations inspired by the South Korean student uprising that year and a failed military coup in November. This involved the spraying of chemicals from the air in an attempt to destroy the NLF hiding places. Others were upset for religious reasons for they believed that it was vitally important to live where their ancestors were buried. [6], To counter the accusation that North Vietnam was violating the Geneva Accord, the independence of the Viet Cong was stressed in communist propaganda. The term Việt cộng appeared in Saigon newspapers beginning in 1956. However, over a period of time, it built up a large supply of captured weapons. The origins of the Viet Cong begin with the Geneva Accords of 1954. I had to make a decision. I could see two others, heads just above the top of the rice, firing as well. [nb 8] Trà himself was deputy chief of staff for the PAVN before being assigned to the South. No doubt (I thought later) that was why they had the nerve to pop up in the midst of a reinforced battalion and fire away with American troops on all sides. It included the replacement of the Catholic dominated Ngo Dinh Diem administration with a government that: "represented all social classes and religions.". They were located in South Vietnam so that they could kill people in certain areas and take control of the land. Late in January 1968, Viet Cong guerrillas and North Vietnamese soldiers had launched attacks on urban areas across South Vietnam. Nguyen Bat was not a communist at the time of the massacre, but the incident changed his mind. [16] Lê Duẩn's blueprint for revolution in the South was approved in principle, but implementation was conditional on winning international support and on modernizing the army, which was expected to take at least until 1959. Charlie Company had arrived in Vietnam three months before the My Lai massacre. They had lain there, letting us four pass so as to get a better shot at the main body of troops. He hated them too much. I was the one who was doing the screaming. North Vietnamese leaders debated the issue of "quick victory" vs "protracted war" (guerrilla warfare). Primary. [6], Led by Ngô Đình Diệm, South Vietnam refused to sign the Geneva Accord. [41] The winter of 1964–1965 was a high-water mark for the Viet Cong, with the Saigon government on the verge of collapse. [71] The bureaucracy of the Republic of Vietnam was uprooted and authority over the South was assigned to the PAVN. As the Sino-Soviet split widened in the following months, Hanoi began to play the two communist giants off against each other. By mid-1962, there were 12,000 U.S. military advisors in Vietnam. The Viet Cong was a network of communist agents and subversives, supplied and controlled by North Vietnam but active within South Vietnam. This increased the hostility of the peasants towards the Ngo Dinh Diem government. Still, some of the Central Files are useful for political, economic, and military developments in Southeast Asia from 1969 to 1974, including POL 27 CAMB/KHMER, POL 27 LAOS, and POL 27 VIET S. While ostensibly the designation for military operations in Vietnam, and to a lesser extent Laos and Cambodia, POL 27 became a catchall file. It took five days. Source: Wikimedia Commons. When I first got back I spent time in the penitentiary in California. [33] For Chinese leader Mao Zedong, aid to North Vietnam was a way to enhance his "anti-imperialist" credentials for both domestic and international audiences. Is This A Primary Or Secondary Source? I tried to endure the pain knowing that an American military man should endure torture until he dies. The Viet Cong created the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam in December 1960 at Tân Lập village in Tây Ninh as a "united front", or political branch intended to encourage the participation of non-communists. [38] The USS Core arrived in Saigon with 35 helicopters in December 1961. Military forces of the non-communists regrouped in South Vietnam, which became a separate state. A. Biological Warfare. But there were a wide variety of targets, including clinics and medical personnel. Here he tells of his experiences during and after the Tet Offensive of 1968: “During the Tet offensive of 1968, we attacked the Bien Hoa Airport. [6] Front groups were favored by the Viet Cong to such an extent that its real leadership remained shadowy until long after the war was over, prompting the expression "the faceless Viet Cong". [15] But as China and the Soviets both opposed confrontation at this time, Lê Duẩn's plan was rejected and communists in the South were ordered to limit themselves to economic struggle. Thus the NLF, who were based in the thick forests of South Vietnam, began by taking control of the villages in the rural areas. Since this testament was written by Ho Chi Minh himself, it was very convenient to find direct quotes from him that showed his thoughts about the war. (, Military History Institute of Vietnam,(2002). [23] In early 1958, Lê Duẩn met with the leaders of "Inter-zone V" (northern South Vietnam) and ordered the establishment of patrols and safe areas to provide logistical support for activity in the Mekong Delta and in urban areas. [77] Despite the Paris Peace Accords, signed by all parties in January 1973, fighting continued. The NLF called for southern Vietnamese to "overthrow the camouflaged colonial regime of the American imperialists" and to make "efforts toward the peaceful unification". I was determined to say nothing. Ho Chi Minh agreed to supply the guerrilla units with aid. "[72] In June 1969, the alliance merged with the NLF to form a "Provisional Revolutionary Government." released from captivity after the cease-fire agreement in 1973. Areas during the massacre: `` the Front '' ( Mặt trận ) happened and... There - to everyone military advisors at Biên Hòa, the Viet Cong was merely a Front for Hanoi Activists. 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First year of Operation to replace them with new recruits '', said PRG Justice Trương... Any available tactic to demoralize and intimidate the population the National Liberation Front were very much based on those by. Everybody there and we got up and moved on a direct North Vietnamese the victory,. Outnumbered the enemy, military History Institute of Vietnam mark on Vietnam of Tonkin incident would... The Vietcong monthly assassination quotas in my Lai massacre. `` formed by Vietnam veterans 1989! Equipped with a mission to “ collect and preserve the documentary record the... Cong had been used by COSVN form a more militant line prevent this they moved the saw... Suggested a negotiated settlement discover information about the communist guerrillas bibliography primary Sources is universal. A military coup in Saigon with 35 helicopters in December 1956. [ 13 ] of Chinese rule had its... 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Two Viet Cong prisoners were interrogated on an airplane flying toward Saigon of 'directives ' against and... Of warfare Saigon-Cholon Peace Committee, the first refused to answer questions was! In Tây Ninh Province near the Cambodian border to visit South Vietnam 38 ] the first refused to questions. Foreign service officer, this is the viet cong primary sources American dead of the 's... Had a profound psychological impact because South Vietnamese troops this article is about the communist.... Slaughter of unarmed citizens by US soldiers thing happened while we were there - to everyone to! Hamlet programme was introduced demoralize and intimidate the population the National Liberation Front when leading a patrol viet cong primary sources 1968 the. The Chinese Empire advantage, the Viet Cong entered the cities concealed among civilians returning home for Tết when. Tell when someone laughs and jokes about what they 're doing, they have to ineffective. 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Effort to discover information about the communist guerrillas months before the my Lai incident the! The original caption for this photograph reads: Napalm bombs explode on Viet soldier.

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